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crimson moon Group

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Bonifati Vorontsov
Bonifati Vorontsov


A truck tractor is defined as a non-cargo-carrying power unit used in combination with a semitrailer. A truck that carries cargo on the same chassis as the power unit and cab, commonly known as a straight truck, is not subject to Federal regulations, but is subject only to State provisions. Likewise a straight truck towing a trailer or semitrailer is subject only to State vehicle length regulation, except that the total length of its two cargo-carrying units may not exceed a federally established limit of 65 feet. (See discussion of ISTEA "Freeze," on page 13.) The only instances where Federal regulations apply to a combination vehicle composed of a truck carrying cargo involve dromedaries, maxi-cube vehicles, and automobile and boat transporters, discussed later in this document.


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USEEIO v2.0 is an environmental-economic model of US goods and services that can be used for life cycle assessment, footprinting, national prioritization, and related applications. This paper describes the development of the model and accompanies the release of a full model dataset as well as various supporting datasets of national environmental totals by US industry. Novel methodological elements since USEEIO v1 models include waste sector disaggregation, final demand vectors for US consumption and production, a domestic form of the model that can be used to separate domestic and foreign impacts, and price adjustment matrices for converting outputs to purchaser price and in various US dollar years. Improvements in modeling national totals of industry and environmental flows are described. The model is validated through reproduction of national totals from input data sources and through analysis of changes from the most recent complete USEEIO model that can be explained based on data updates or method changes. The model datasets can all be reproduced with open source software packages.

USEEIO v2.0, or referred to solely as v2.0, is the latest edition of the US Environmentally-Extended Input-Output (USEEIO) model for assessing a full suite of potential life cycle impacts of US goods and services. It is the first model version since USEEIO v1.2 capable of calculating potential environmental impacts, resource use and waste generation along with economic impacts, and builds upon the creation of the USEEIO v2 GHG models, which were a series of USEEIO models used to calculate Supply Chain Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors1. This paper presents a summary of the complete v2.0 model attributes and model creation with a focus on describing methodological updates since the publication of the original USEEIO methodology.

For v2.0, we derive two primary final demand vectors, a production vector and a consumption vector. We define consumption as final use within the US of all goods and services that are both produced and sold within the US or imported. We define production as final use, either within the US or abroad, of all goods and services that are produced in the US.

Collectively there are small decreases in ACID in most sectors. The decrease is more notable in electricity and transportation sectors. ACID in utilities, manufacturing and transportation sectors is largely driven by criteria air pollutant emissions like sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). For Electricity, for example, SO2 and NOX contribute to 57% and 39% of impact, respectively. This general decrease in v2.0 factors reflects the steady national decrease in SO2 emissions from 2011 to 201769.

The sets of commodities in the top 20 from v2.0 and v1.2 in the production and consumption-based rankings are nearly identical, with some notable substitutions and some exchanging of places. In Fig. 1a, Electricity followed by Fresh wheat, corn, rice, and other grains remain in the top two places, but Cattle ranches and feedlots has moved into the third place. Other basic organic chemicals leapt 6 places, while Truck transport fell 7 places. Waste management and remediation services fell out of the top 20 due to the disaggregation of the waste sectors in v2.0. Tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, peanuts, sugar beets, herbs and spices, and other crops fell 14 places, apparently to decreased water consumption.

In Fig. 1b, rankings reveal some minor shifting of positions. State and local general government is split into education and other services in the 2012 IO tables, resulting in a fall in ranking but occupying two spots in the top 20. Federal government (defense) climbed from 17th to 7th due to an increased relative amount of HTOX. Fresh vegetables, melons, and potatoes climbed from 10th to 6th position. Hospitals and Limited Service Restaurants have moved up in the rankings. Truck transport fell out of the top 20. Food and beverage stores appear in v2.0 rankings as the only retail sector, whereas Other retail appeared as the only retail sector in the v1.2 top 20. The construction sectors, Single family homes, Other residential structures, and Housing, have all dropped significantly in the ranking, the latter two no longer appearing in the top 20.

Some items may endanger the safety of an aircraft or persons on board, and these dangerous materials can either be forbidden or restricted for air transport. IATA leads industry efforts to ensure the safe transport of dangerous goods by air. We provide a great variety of technical knowledge, products, services and training solutions, tailored to satisfy industry needs.

The development of standards for documentation, handling and training, as well as the promotion and use, contributed to achieving a very high degree of safety in the transport of dangerous goods by air.

IATA works closely with local governments and ICAO in the development of regulations. This way, we ensure that the rules and guidelines on dangerous goods transport are effective and operational practical. The IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations (DGR) manual is the global reference for shipping dangerous goods by air and the only standard recognized by airlines. 041b061a72


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