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Bonifati Vorontsov
Bonifati Vorontsov

Plane Surveying by A M Chandra: An Essential Textbook for Civil Engineering Students and Professionals


<h1>Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR: A Review</h1>


<p>If you are looking for a comprehensive and practical guide to plane surveying, you might want to check out Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR. This book is written by a professor of civil engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, and it covers the various principles, methods and instruments involved in land surveying. It also explains the errors in survey measurement and their propagation, as well as how to measure, plot and calculate areas and volumes from survey data.</p>




plane surveying by a m chandra pdf rar



<p>Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR is suitable for degree and diploma students of civil engineering, as well as AMIE candidates and practicing engineers. It contains suitable diagrams, illustrative examples and practice problems throughout the book. It also features a chapter on various types of curves and field problems in setting out the curves.</p>


<h2>What is Plane Surveying?</h2>


<p>Plane surveying is a branch of surveying that deals with the measurement of distances, angles, elevations and directions on or near the surface of the earth. It assumes that the earth is flat and ignores the effects of curvature and refraction. Plane surveying is used for small areas where the curvature of the earth is negligible.</p>


<p>Plane surveying can be divided into two types: geodetic surveying and topographic surveying. Geodetic surveying is concerned with establishing control points that are accurately positioned on the earth's surface. These control points are used as reference for other surveys. Topographic surveying is concerned with mapping the features and contours of the earth's surface.</p>


<h3>What are the Methods and Instruments of Plane Surveying?</h3>


<p>Plane surveying can be done by various methods and instruments, depending on the accuracy, cost and purpose of the survey. Some of the common methods and instruments are:</p>


<ul>


<li>Chain and compass surveying: This is a simple and inexpensive method that uses a chain or a tape to measure horizontal distances and a compass to measure directions. It is suitable for rough surveys and reconnaissance surveys.</li>


<li>Theodolite surveying: This is a more accurate and precise method that uses a theodolite to measure horizontal and vertical angles. A theodolite is an instrument that consists of a telescope mounted on a horizontal and a vertical circle. It can also measure distances by using stadia tacheometry.</li>


<li>Plane table surveying: This is a graphical method that uses a plane table to plot the map of the area directly in the field. A plane table is a board mounted on a tripod with a sheet of paper fixed on it. It has a sighting device called an alidade that can be moved along the paper to draw lines of sight.</li>


<li>Total station surveying: This is a modern and advanced method that uses an electronic device called a total station to measure distances, angles and elevations automatically. A total station combines the functions of a theodolite, an electronic distance meter (EDM) and a data logger. It can also communicate with other devices such as computers, GPS receivers and digital cameras.</li>


</ul>


<h4>What are the Benefits of Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR?</h4>


<p>Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR is a book that provides a lucid and step-by-step treatment of plane surveying. It has several benefits for students and professionals who want to learn or improve their skills in plane surveying. Some of these benefits are:</p>


<ul>


<li>It covers all the topics related to plane surveying in a systematic and logical manner.</li>


<li>It emphasizes on modern methods and techniques of plane surveying that are relevant for current practice.</li>


<li>It explains the concepts and definitions clearly and concisely with suitable examples.</li>


<li>It provides numerous diagrams, tables, figures and illustrations to enhance understanding.</li>


<li>It includes solved examples, unsolved problems, objective questions and review questions at the end of each chapter to test comprehension.</li>


<li>It offers practical tips, hints, notes and cautions throughout the book to facilitate application.</li>


</ul>


<h5>How to Download Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR?</h5>


<p>If you want to download Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR, you can follow these steps:</p>


<ol>


<li>Go to this link: https://tnigatu.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/surveying-chandra1.pdf</li>


<li>Click on the download button or right-click on the link and select save as.</li>


<li>Save the file on your computer or device.</li>


<li>Open the file with any PDF reader or editor.</li>


<li>Enjoy reading Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR.</li>


</ol></p>


<h6>What are the Applications of Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR?</h6>


<p>Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR is a book that can help you learn and apply plane surveying in various fields and projects. Some of the applications of plane surveying are:</p>


<ul>


<li>Land surveying: Plane surveying can be used to measure and map the boundaries, features and ownership of land parcels. It can also be used to establish control points, benchmarks and reference systems for other surveys.</li>


<li>Engineering surveying: Plane surveying can be used to plan, design and construct civil engineering projects such as roads, bridges, dams, tunnels, buildings and pipelines. It can also be used to monitor and inspect the quality and performance of these structures.</li>


<li>Mining surveying: Plane surveying can be used to explore and exploit mineral resources such as coal, oil, gas and metals. It can also be used to measure and map the underground workings, shafts, tunnels and boreholes.</li>


<li>Environmental surveying: Plane surveying can be used to assess and manage the impact of human activities on the environment. It can also be used to measure and map the natural features and resources such as water, soil, vegetation and wildlife.</li>


<li>Archaeological surveying: Plane surveying can be used to locate and document the historical and cultural sites and artifacts. It can also be used to reconstruct and preserve the ancient monuments and landscapes.</li>


</ul>


<h7>Conclusion</h7>


<p>Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR is a book that provides a lucid and step-by-step treatment of plane surveying. It covers all the topics related to plane surveying in a systematic and logical manner. It emphasizes on modern methods and techniques of plane surveying that are relevant for current practice. It explains the concepts and definitions clearly and concisely with suitable examples. It provides numerous diagrams, tables, figures and illustrations to enhance understanding. It includes solved examples, unsolved problems, objective questions and review questions at the end of each chapter to test comprehension. It offers practical tips, hints, notes and cautions throughout the book to facilitate application.</p>


<p>Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR is suitable for degree and diploma students of civil engineering, as well as AMIE candidates and practicing engineers. It can help you learn and apply plane surveying in various fields and projects. It is available for download from this link: https://tnigatu.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/surveying-chandra1.pdf</p>


<p>If you want to learn more about plane surveying or improve your skills in plane surveying, you should definitely read Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR.</p>


<h8>What are the Challenges of Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR?</h8>


<p>Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR is a book that provides a lucid and step-by-step treatment of plane surveying. However, plane surveying is not without its challenges and limitations. Some of the challenges of plane surveying are:</p>


<ul>


<li>Accuracy and precision: Plane surveying requires high accuracy and precision in measurement and calculation. Any errors or mistakes can affect the quality and reliability of the survey results. Therefore, plane surveying requires careful planning, execution and checking of the survey work.</li>


<li>Cost and time: Plane surveying can be costly and time-consuming depending on the size, complexity and purpose of the survey. It involves the use of various methods, instruments and personnel. It also requires proper documentation and reporting of the survey data.</li>


<li>Environmental factors: Plane surveying can be affected by various environmental factors such as weather, terrain, vegetation, obstructions and interference. These factors can cause difficulties or errors in measurement and observation. Therefore, plane surveying requires suitable adjustments and corrections to account for these factors.</li>


<li>Ethical and legal issues: Plane surveying can involve ethical and legal issues such as ownership, privacy, safety and security. These issues can arise when dealing with land owners, authorities, clients and stakeholders. Therefore, plane surveying requires adherence to professional standards, codes of conduct and regulations.</li>


</ul>


<h9>How to Learn Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR?</h9>


<p>Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR is a book that provides a lucid and step-by-step treatment of plane surveying. It is suitable for degree and diploma students of civil engineering, as well as AMIE candidates and practicing engineers. However, reading the book alone is not enough to learn plane surveying. You also need to practice and apply what you learn from the book. Here are some tips on how to learn plane surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR:</p>


<ul>


<li>Read the book carefully and understand the concepts and definitions. Try to relate them to real-life examples and situations.</li>


<li>Solve the examples, problems and questions given in the book. Check your answers with the solutions provided in the book or online.</li>


<li>Review the key points and summaries at the end of each chapter. Test your knowledge with the objective questions given in the book or online.</li>


<li>Practice plane surveying in the field or in the laboratory using various methods and instruments. Follow the instructions and procedures given in the book or online.</li>


<li>Seek feedback and guidance from your teachers, mentors or peers. Learn from your mistakes and improve your skills.</li>


</ul>


<h10>Final Words</h10>


<p>Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR is a book that provides a lucid and step-by-step treatment of plane surveying. It covers all the topics related to plane surveying in a systematic and logical manner. It emphasizes on modern methods and techniques of plane surveying that are relevant for current practice. It explains the concepts and definitions clearly and concisely with suitable examples. It provides numerous diagrams, tables, figures and illustrations to enhance understanding. It includes solved examples, unsolved problems, objective questions and review questions at the end of each chapter to test comprehension. It offers practical tips, hints, notes and cautions throughout the book to facilitate application.</p>


<p>Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR is suitable for degree and diploma students of civil engineering, as well as AMIE candidates and practicing engineers. It can help you learn and apply plane surveying in various fields and projects. It is available for download from this link: https://tnigatu.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/surveying-chandra1.pdf</p>


<p>If you want to learn more about plane surveying or improve your skills in plane surveying, you should definitely read Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR.</p>


<h11>Conclusion</h11>


<p>Plane surveying is a branch of surveying that deals with the measurement of distances, angles, elevations and directions on or near the surface of the earth. It assumes that the earth is flat and ignores the effects of curvature and refraction. Plane surveying is used for small areas where the curvature of the earth is negligible.</p>


<p>Plane surveying can be done by various methods and instruments, depending on the accuracy, cost and purpose of the survey. Some of the common methods and instruments are chain and compass surveying, theodolite surveying, plane table surveying and total station surveying.</p>


<p>Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR is a book that provides a lucid and step-by-step treatment of plane surveying. It covers all the topics related to plane surveying in a systematic and logical manner. It emphasizes on modern methods and techniques of plane surveying that are relevant for current practice. It explains the concepts and definitions clearly and concisely with suitable examples. It provides numerous diagrams, tables, figures and illustrations to enhance understanding. It includes solved examples, unsolved problems, objective questions and review questions at the end of each chapter to test comprehension. It offers practical tips, hints, notes and cautions throughout the book to facilitate application.</p>


<p>Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR is suitable for degree and diploma students of civil engineering, as well as AMIE candidates and practicing engineers. It can help you learn and apply plane surveying in various fields and projects. It is available for download from this link: https://tnigatu.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/surveying-chandra1.pdf</p>


<p>If you want to learn more about plane surveying or improve your skills in plane surveying, you should definitely read Plane Surveying by A M Chandra PDF RAR.</p> ca3e7ad8fd


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